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EN71-2: 2006+A1:2007 Safety of Toys, Flammability                              fire glass (2).jpg

– General Requirements 


General Requirements

The following materials should not be used in the manufacture of toys: celluloid (cellulose nitrate) and highly flammable solids. In addition, the sample shall not contain flammable gases, highly flammable liquids, flammable liquids, or flammable gels.


Cellulose Nitrate

Cellulose Nitrate (also: nitrocellulose, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through, for example, exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.


The process uses the nitric acid to convert the cellulose into cellulose nitrate and water:

2HNO3+ C6H10O5 → C6H8(NO2)2O5 + 2H2O


Main Uses of Cellulose Nitrate:

·                     Photographic film

·                     Magician's "flash paper", sheets of paper or cloth made from nitrocellulose, which                 burn almost instantly, with a  bright flash, and leave no ash.

·                     Nail polish

·                     Hair Coloring

·                     Nitrocellulose lacquer,

Other uses of Cellulose Nitrate:

Depending on the manufacturing process, Cellulose Nitrate is esterified to varying degrees.

Table tennis balls, guitar picks and some photographic films have a fairly low esterification level and burn comparatively slowly with some charred residue.



Celluloid is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents. Generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic. Celluloid is easily molded and shaped, and there are suggestions that it was first made as an ivory replacement. Celluloid is highly flammable and also easily decomposes, and is no longer widely used. Its most common use today is the table tennis ball.


Celluloid (Trademark)

The name Celluloid actually began as a trademark of the Celluloid Manufacturing Company of Newark, New Jersey, which manufactured the celluloids patented by John Wesley Hyatt.



Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. While the fibres used are usually natural in origin, a wide variety of synthetic fibers, such as polypropylene and polyethylene, may be incorporated into paper as a way of imparting desirable physical properties.


Table Tennis Ball

Table tennis ball is made of a high-bouncing gas-filled celluloid ball.





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